If I were King of Medicare.
I am still learning how best to extract useful information from the public-use Medicare Part-D Drug Utilization and Cost files. I view these as experiments of nature worth mining for what they can tell us about the clinical and business aspects of healthcare. The last few articles I have written focused on the utilization and cost of Insulin, highlighting the seemingly unjustified increases in this life-saving drug for diabetics. In this tweak, I learn how to combine data from drugs in the same therapeutic category including all the brand and generic versions of individual drugs within categories. I am still wrestling with technical issues related to presenting multiple groups in a single TreeMap visualization, but as an example, I will show that in 2015 three groups of drugs– insulin, opioids, and drugs used to treat Hepatitis-C– cost the Medicare program 17.6% of the total cost of all Part-D drugs but comprised only 7.2% of all prescriptions. These drugs were expensive for different reasons that I will illustrate.
I particularly like the TreeMap data-visualization format because it allows hundreds if not thousands of drugs to be compared at the same time and facilitates identification of unexpected or unjustified outliers much easier. Since Medicare is now standardizing the formats of these drug files, changes in utilization and cost can be tracked over several years. I believe that placing such analyses into the service of policy makers and payers can allow savings of billions of dollars without compromise of care. Continue reading “How To Save Big Money on Prescription Drugs.”
The cost of Insulin to the Medicare program is frankly staggering. In brief summary, insulin is not only one of the most important drugs for beneficiaries, but also, in aggregate, one of the most expensive set of drugs used by Medicare patients.
I want to use this post to explore enhancements to Medicare’s Part-D drug utilization-and-cost files using Insulin as an example. I have previously dissected the public use files released by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to explore a number of health policy issues. These included utilization and cost of medical services by hospitals and other providers; quality and safety issues related to hospitals; the overall monstrous rises in prices of generic and other drugs; and prescribing patterns of opioids by individual practitioners. Other analyses examined insulin utilization and cost for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. The rapid (and large) increases in the price of insulin are exemplars of the gut-punch impact of drug prices on individuals and our healthcare system. Drug companies have diabetics and their public and private payers over a barrel. Large numbers of patients with diabetes need the drug to keep them healthy if not alive. In mid-2016, CMS updated and standardized their Medicare Part-D databases making them comparable for the three initial calendar years of 2013 through 2015. I took this opportunity to take another look at Insulin. Although only some 70% of all Medicare beneficiaries are enrolled in Part-D Drug benefit programs, I suggest that prescribing patterns to these Medicare beneficiaries are not very different than those for non-Medicare adult patients and can be generalized. To make the initial data available to some new colleagues and simply just to get a start somewhere, I placed my first peeks into the enhanced Medicare databases on my Tableau Public Site in three sets of interactive tables and visualizations individually for 2013, 2014, and 2015. Continue reading “Updated Look at the Rapidly Rising Cost of Insulin in Medicare Part-D Program.”
Less than one month after our exploration of the recent colossal price markup of a simple drug used by a vulnerable and desperate group of children and their families, a dramatic turn of events occurred which may make things better or worse. In February, the pharmaceutical company Marathon announced its marketing plans for Emflaza, its brand name for deflazacort, a simple corticosteroid widely available in other countries but not in the United States. Emflaza had recently been approved by the FDA for the treatment of symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Duchenne MD) in the United States. Duchenne MD is a usually fatal genetic muscular disorder of young boys for which no curative therapy is currently available, but for which corticosteroids such as deflazacort and prednisone slow the progression of weakness. Deflazacort– the most commonly prescribed all-purpose steroid in some countries– has been used in Canada and elsewhere for the treatment of Duchenne MD for some time. The wrinkle in Marathon’s release was that it declared an annual charge of $89,000 per child for a drug sold in many other countries for a price a measured in pennies instead of dollars.
I have already expressed my puzzlement that the FDA gave its approval to Marathon based on clinical data collected many years old by another drug company that for undisclosed reasons walked away from FDA approval. I am still looking for reliable studies that confirm that deflazacort is superior to, or safer than prednisone to treat Duchenne MD. [Prednisone is the most prescribed corticosteroid in the United States. To say that it is inexpensive would be an exaggeration!] Perhaps a clinician without ties to the pharmaceutical industry will provide us with evidence-based data that Emflaza is an essential or even a better drug for Duchenne MD, or worth the monumental cost for any incremental benefit.
Continue reading “Newest Proposed Treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Abruptly Changes Hands.”
New Money from Old Drugs. Are children with muscular dystrophy being served by the free market or taken advantage of?
I suspect that it is just because people are paying attention, but reports of unexplainably excessive pricing of both new and old drugs keep coming too fast to keep up with. I recently published a list of 447 drugs whose prices doubled or more between 2011 to 2015. Even that list was incomplete! This week’s prize winner is Emflaza, a drug that was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).
The price proposed by Marathon Pharmaceutical, LLC is $89,000 per patient per year. We may be getting desensitized to such patient-bankrupting offerings, but what makes Emflaza stand out from the offending crowd is that in Canada, where some of the original research appears to have been done, the same drug for the same disorder costs a dollar a pill or less. As noted in the Wall Street Journal, the price set by Marathon is 50 to 70 times what most U.S. patients currently pay to buy the drug (illegally?) from on-line pharmacies in the United Kingdom. The more I learned about Emflaza, the more troubled I became. Allow me to share some of my discomfiture with you. Continue reading “Is Emflaza the Latest Drug Pricing Rip-off or Not?”
At least 447 Medicare outpatient drugs had prices more than double between 2011 and 2015 and 36 increased their prices ten-fold!
In every week of recent months our attention is being called to one or another exorbitant or unexplainable increase in the price of yet another prescription drug. We have long recognized continuously rising prices for brand-name drugs, but the new business model of the pharmaceutical industry includes taking control of the distribution of traditionally generic drugs and jacking prices up even faster and higher than their brand-name cousins– if that is even possible. It appears that the more medically-necessary or lifesaving the drug is, the higher the price increases are. This is what happens in a free market environment when an industry has its consumers over a barrel and is free to have its way with them.
Some poster-children of the trend include the anti-parasitic drug pyrimethamine (Daraprim) which is essential to treat certain infections in immunosuppressed people and whose price per tablet increased from $13.50 to $750 overnight; the EpiPen injector system used to administer epinephrine to people entering anaphylactic shock; insulin for diabetes; Plaquenil, and more recently Suboxone, the drug used to help manage opioid addiction. As I will show below, there are many more drugs with recently inflated prices still cruising below the radar! Continue reading “Exorbitant Increases in Prescription Drug Prices Neither New Nor Uncommon.”
Mylan Pharmaceuticals is really feeling the heat. An outpouring of outrage over its exorbitant pricing for EpiPen has caused it to announce plans to offer a generic version of the product for half the $600+ dollars of the branded version. The EpiPen is a self-injecting device used for life-saving rescue of individuals with anaphylaxis, a severe form of allergic reaction. (See my recent article for background.) Mylan joined the new “gouge-em if you can” industry club by buying a old standard drug and jacking up the price to astronomical amounts assuming we patients had no recourse but to raid our kids’ college accounts to pay for it. How broken is a system that has the same company selling the same drug at two vastly different prices in the same country? I guess Mylan assumes it is still acceptable to rip-off patients with health insurance. This face-saving move is yet another confirmation of the hypocrisy of our two-or-more-tiered healthcare system, and the absurdity of our drug pricing non-system. The only way for Mylan to get out of this public relations hole it is digging is to give EpiPen away for free as a public service to anyone who needs it! Continue reading “Mylan Drug Company Drops Price of EpiPen – Sort Of!”
Why do they do it? Because they can– and because we let them!
Mylan, the manufacturer of the EpiPen, an auto-injector used to inject epinephrine beneath the skin, has raised the price of its product some 800% between 2009 and 2016. The active drug itself is a traditional generic that costs very little. Mylan has copied a business model of buying a standard drug that is essential for some and jacking up the price to more than what desperate people are willing or able to pay. It was easy to do so because Mylan lost its major competition and because individuals with “good” health insurance are insulated from having to pay the full price in the drugstore. The price of the usual prescription for EpiPen is reported to have risen from $100 in 2009 to around $600 today. The pricing of this medical device that makes it convenient to carry and administer epinephrine is another of the innumerable examples of the failure of our healthcare system to protect the interests of individuals with medical needs and to tolerate predation such as this. Continue reading “Another Drug Company Rips Off the Public: Mylan’s EpiPen.”
An improved goldmine of information not otherwise available to the public and a flood of opioids.
On August 18, CMS released the second iteration of its cost-and-utilization database of prescription drugs written for patients covered by Medicare Part-D Medicare which includes beneficiaries in Part-C Managed Care and stand-alone Medicare Part-D Prescription Drug Plans. Compared to the updates of Medicare’s other 2013 public-use healthcare utilization files, this release seemed delayed and I feared the program’s continuing implementation had been quashed by the pharmaceutical industry lobby and its friends as was a 2013 initiative to provide the public with average retail drug prices. The wait was worth it.
Although restricted to the two specific Medicare populations mentioned above comprising some 70% of all Medicare beneficiaries, the database is unique in that the names and other identifying information about individual prescribers are disclosed to the public. Although the drug companies themselves know who is prescribing their products, to my knowledge, this degree of transparency for the public is unique – and therefore doubly valuable. The top 25 opioid prescribers to this population are listed below. Continue reading “Medicare Updates Its Prescription Drug Utilization Database.”
Earlier this month I published a survey of the cost of insulin to the Medicaid and Medicare programs of Kentucky and the nation. Fully 9.1% of the total cost of Kentucky’s outpatient Medicaid drug program went to pay for the several brands of Insulin still available. It was obvious that some brands cost a lot more per prescription or claim than others and that the most expensive brands were prescribed most often! I used this critically important drug as an example of how the market for prescription drugs in America is badly broken. Since then I stumbled on two additional federal databases that provide additional insight into how much these drugs cost at the local pharmacy counter where the rubber hits the road. These are federal surveys that determine the National Average Retail Prices paid by the consumer (NARP), and the National Average Drug Acquisition Cost (NADAC) for the pharmacy. Both these programs provide data at the cost per milliliter level, and otherwise facilitate apple-to-apple comparisons of the different brands. In brief, the additional data confirm that in 2013, for the same size bottle, the newer insulin analogs cost 71% more than the older “human” insulins. By 2015, all prices had increased; some substantially. Valuable information about the retail prices of drugs is being kept from public inspection. Continue reading “Update On The Rising Prices of Insulin Between 2013 and 2016.”
Just business– or greed? You be the judge.
Discovered and patented almost 100 years ago, insulin is a critical drug for the treatment of both childhood Type I and adult onset Type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a costly disease for our society in more ways than one. In 2015, the cost to the Kentucky Medicaid program for insulin alone annualizes to $101.8 million. Insulin consumed 9.1% of Kentucky Medicaid’s entire non-hospital drug expense while making up only 1.1% of all prescriptions. In 2013, the last year in which Medicare Part-D drug utilization data are available to me, insulin consumed 7.3% of total Medicare reimbursement for drugs in Kentucky costing a total of $141.8 million. In both federal programs, insulin consumed a larger portion of the drug budgets in Kentucky than nationally. A review of several reasons why insulin has become so expensive illustrates what is very wrong with our national drug policy. Continue reading “Soaring Insulin Prices Highlight Broken Pharmaceutical Policy.”